In a food processor, combine peanut butter, coconut milk, lime juice, soy sauce, Thai chile, garlic, honey, and fish sauce, if using, and pulse until smooth. The sauce should be pourable, so add water by the tablespoon, if needed. Season with salt.
Season the tempeh with salt and pepper. In a large, high-sided skillet, heat 2 tablespoons olive oil over medium-high. Add the tempeh and cook, turning, until golden—about 2 minutes per side. Using a slotted spoon, transfer to a plate.
Return the skillet to medium-high heat and add the green beans. Cover and cook, stirring a few times, until tender, about 4 minutes. If the pan turns dark, add a tablespoon or two of water and cover again. Remove from the heat.
Divide the rice and cabbage among four bowls. Arrange the green beans, tomato, cucumber, and carrots over the cabbage and rice and season with salt and pepper. Add the cooked tempeh and soft-boiled eggs. Garnish with radish, jalapeño, if using, and cilantro. Drizzle with peanut sauce and serve.